Substance Abuse

Definition (DSM-IV)

Substance Abuse:  A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress.

 

Overindulgence in or dependence on an addictive substance, esp. alcohol or drugs.

Prevalence

Substance use, abuse, and addiction are amongst the leading causes of adolescent death in the United States (Brannigan, Schackman, Falco, & Millman, 2004; Sussman, Dent, & Galaif, 1997).

Various illegal substances are widely used or abused by school age children in the United States (Johnston, O’Malley, Bachman, & Schulenberg, 2010).

In 2010, the proportions of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported that they had used an illicit drug in the prior 12 months were 21%, 37%, and 48%, correspondingly (Johnston et al., 2010).

Approximately 5% of school age children in the United States qualify for a
diagnosis of substance abuse disorder (Tarter, 2002).

Characteristics / Factors

  • low socioeconomic status

  • living in a single-parent home

  • changing schools at non-traditional times

  • below-average grades in middle school

  • being held back in school through grade retention

  • having older siblings who left high school before completion

  • negative peer pressure

Children who abuse substances

  • Substance abuse places students significantly at risk for school failure.

  • The substance that youth use the most is alcohol.

  • Boys use illegal drugs more than girls, but girls use more over-the – counter drugs inappropriately.

  • Nearly 9 million youths, ages 12 to 20, in this country report they have consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. The rate of current alcohol consumption increases with increasing age according to the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 1% at age 12
    to 15% at age 16,
    and 39% at age 20.

(The Foundation for Advancing Alcohol Responsibility, 2013)

 

Levels of Severity

One time user

Regular user

Binge user

Absenteeism, decisions and mental impairment, dropping out, and in some cases death.

Statistics

8th-12th Grade Drinking Patterns 2013.gif

 8th Grade Drinking-Past Month(1).gif

 8th Grade Drinking-Binge drinking(1).gif

10th Grade Drinking-Binge drinking(1).gif

12th Grade Drinking-Past Month(1).gif

12th Grade Drinking-Binge drinking(1).gif

UAD-13-Where-Do-Kids-DrinkPREP.gif

UAD-10-Parents-and-Kids-Agree-Family-PREP.gif

Percent of high school students who smoked cigarettes on at least one day (during the 30 days before the survey)

2009

2011

Total

19%

18%

Male

20%

20%

Female

19%

16%

 

Percent of high school students who used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least one day (during the 30 days before the survey)

2009

2011

Total

9%

8%

Male

15%

13%

Female

2%

2%

 

Percent of high school students who usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store or gas station (during the 30 days before the survey)

2009

2011

Total

14%

14%

Male

18%

17%

Female

10%

10%

 

Percent of high school students who never tried cigarette smoking (even one or two puffs)

2009

2011

Total

54%

55%

Male

54%

54%

Female

54%

57%

http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/adolescent-health-topics/substance-abuse/states/us.html

 

MARIJUANA USE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (Grades 9-12), 2009 and 2011  SA1

Percent of high school students who ever used marijuana one or more times (during their life)

2009

2011

Total

37%

40%

Male

39%

42%

Female

34%

37%

 

INHALANT USE AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (Grades 9-12), 2009 and 2011  SA1

Percent of high school students who ever sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times (during their life)

2009

2011

Total

12%

11%

Male

11%

10%

Female

13%

12%

 

High school data are from: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). 1991-2011 High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline

Percent of high school students who used any form of cocaine one or more times (for example, powder, crack, or freebase, during the 30 days before the survey)

2009

2011

Total

3%

3%

Male

4%

4%

Female

2%

2%

 

Percent of adolescents ages 12-17 who needed but did not receive treatment for alcohol use (during the 12 months before the survey)

2008-2009

2009-2010

Total

5%

4%

 

Pain reliever and receipt of treatment data are from: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2012). State Estimates of Substance Use and Mental Disorders from the 2009-2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, NSDUH Series H-43, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 12-4703. Table C.8, C.21, C.22. Rockville, MD. Retrieved October 19, 2012, from http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2k10State/NSDUHsae2010/NSDUHsaeAppC2010.htm

 

Percent of adolescents ages 12-17 who used pain relievers for nonmedical reasons (during the 12 months before the survey)

2008-2009

2009-2010

Total

7%

6%

 

Percent of adolescents ages 12-17 who needed but did not receive treatment for illicit drug use (during the 12 months before the survey)

2008-2009

2009-2010

Total

4%

4%

 

Signs of Substance Abuse

  • Inability to Concentrate

  • Chronic Absenteeism

  • Poor Grades or Neglect of Homework

  • Uncooperative and Quarrelsome Behavior

  • Sudden Behavior Changes

  • Shy and Withdrawn Behavior

  • Compulsive Behaviors

  • Chronic Health Problems

  • Low Self-Esteem, Anger, Anxiety, Depression

  • Poor coping skills

  • Unreasonable fears

  • Difficulty adjusting to changes

Some High Risk Times during the Academic Year

The first 2 or 3 weeks of school
(major pressure to socialize and get caught up with friends in addition to low academic demands)

Homecoming

Right before, or during or immediately after mid-terms (for ‘stress management’)

After handing in a major paper or project
(very high risk if the student had stayed all night before, working on the paper/project;
sleep deprivation adds more impairment)

During fraternity rush/recruitment

Semi-formals and Formals

Major sporting events

Winter Break

Spring Break

Mardi Gras

Birthdays (especially 21st and 16th)

Breakup of relationships

Right after finals

Graduation

Diagnosis (according to DSM-IV)

Blood Tests (random)!!

CRITERIA FOR SUBSTANCE ABUSE:

Manifested by one or more of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

• Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (e.g. repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use; substance-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school; neglect of children or household)

• Recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous
(e.g. driving an automobile or operating a machine when impaired)

• Recurrent substance-related legal problems (e.g. arrests for substance-related disorderly conduct)

• Continued substance use despite persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance (e.g. arguments with spouse about consequences of intoxication,physical fights)

Additionally, the symptoms for substance abuse have never met the criteria for substance dependence.

Substance Dependence:

A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress is manifested by three or more of the following, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period:

• Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:

• A need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect

• Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of the substance

• Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following:

• The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance

• Taking the same (or a closely related) substance to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms

• Taking the substance often in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended

• Having a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).

American Psychiatric Association, Washington D.C., 1994,

 

Preventive and Protective Principles

Family – School – Community

Core Elements of Prevention

Family

  • Clinics
  • Drug abuse symptoms
  • parenting skills
  • Home/drug testing
  • Family therapy

Schools

  • after-school programs
  • Drug effects
  • Resistance Skills
  • Counselling and Assistance
  • Booster sessions

Community

  • billboards
  • Drug trends
  • social skills
  • Drug Free zones
  • Consistent advertising messages

What Can We Do?

Strong school and community perspective :

1. (Academic) Systemic Renewal

2. School-community collaboration

3. Create safe learning environments

 

Basic core strategies :

1. Mentoring/tutoring

2. Service-learning

3. Alternative schooling

4. After school opportunities

Seek professional development

• Promote active learning

• Use educational technology effectively

• Consider individualized instruction

• Career and Technology Education (CTE) – help

them prepare for graduation and beyond